By Jeffrey Heath
This article offers grammar in English of a language of the Songhay family members of West Africa. The emphasis is on grammatical different types and morphosyntax. issues comprise: focalization and relativization, logophoric pronouns, conjunctions and serial verbs.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Koyra Chiini: The Songhay of Timbuktu (Mouton Grammar Library, 19)
To clarify the relationships in such sentences. 2 Distinctive features of Koyra Chiini 15 Subjunctive clauses are marked with the morpheme ma in the MAN position between the subject NP and the verb. The type of modality they express is generally deontic rather than epistemic; more specifically, the modal value is usually hortative, imperative, or desiderative. However, as in some European languages, the subjunctive is largely confined to complement clauses. It is common as the complement of a quotative verb, in which case it is used to report an original imperative, as in (24).
B. c.. d. ' Note that applying the regressive assimilations of the normal VV-Contraction rule preserves the opposition between 3Sg and 3P1 before postpositions like dative se, but obliterates the distinction between 3SgO ga and 3P1O gi when they precede such PPs. Careful (uncontracted) pronunciations are also permitted. The surface mergers shown in (37) are another good reason for using the ligature notation (left column) in ordinary transcriptions, since it makes the underlying morphemic combinations more transparent while suggesting the surface pronunciation.
5 Syllabification 23 oven' and many native stems such as baan 'be light' and ben 'finish'. 10, below. 1). ) Comparison of certain verbs with their derivatives suggests that vestiges of a former opposition of final *n and *η are still to be found (28). (28) verb a. hin baan jeen kaan b. 5) tiq-ey, tin-ey (woyne-)kaij-ey gloss 'wherewithal' 'softness' Old age' 'sweetness' 'lack' 'weight' '(sun-)set' Most π-final verbs that have an abstractive nominalization keep the alveolar nasal; a few examples are given in (28a).
A Grammar of Koyra Chiini: The Songhay of Timbuktu (Mouton Grammar Library, 19) by Jeffrey Heath