By Esa Saarinen (auth.), Frank Heny (eds.)

ISBN-10: 9027711682

ISBN-13: 9789027711687

ISBN-10: 9400983778

ISBN-13: 9789400983779

The essays during this publication take care of a few difficulties within the research of intensional language - extra in particular with the research of the private modalities in traditional language. jointly they conceal a consultant spectrum of the issues of up to date ,interest during this zone, in a manner that are meant to cause them to of curiosity to linguists, logicians and philosophers eager about ordinary language. The individuals are as a rule extra linguists than logicians or philosophers yet a few are extra logicians or philosophers than linguists. so far as attainable, we have now attempted to behavior the dialogue in phrases that would allow scholars from any of those fields to come back to grips with the vital matters. This quantity will offer, i believe, fabric for a truly stimulating direction. i've got used it because the foundation for a direction on the introductory point within the philosophy of language. The essays within the ebook led us again to examine the vintage texts­ and a great deal of the intervening literature crept in of its personal accord. Out of that have grew the advent that follows. by contrast with the remainder of the e-book, the creation is frankly pedagogical. i'm hoping and think that many that may in a different way locate the papers themselves challenging to digest will ~e helped on their method by way of that summary.

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It is, in fact, simply a concept. 48 The papers which we have discussed up to now all seem to accept without question the need to represent in an analysis of belief sentences a characterization of the mental state of the believer which might count as grounds for assenting to the sentence itself. We have not questioned that assumption. But the next paper, by Schwarz, explicitly abandons it and concentrates solely on the reporting of a belief as relational. This corresponds in some sense to what we have been calling de re, but there are signifIcant differences.

Given the very sketchy account above of truth conditions for this word, we may expect any individual satisfying (17a) and (17b ') to possess the desired properties in Ralph's belief worlds. In the story, Ortcutt possessed those properties in the real world, too, but there is nothing in the above expressions to guarantee that. We are concerned about the problem of identifying individuals under different circumstances so it might be advisable to represent the situation as faithfully as we can. In order to ensure that xxxiii INTRODUCTION individuals satisfying the entire expressions had the desired properties in the actual world, we should simply need to move the descriptions outside the scope of believe: Vx (x is the man in the brown hat & R believes (x is a spy)), instead of (17a).

In a sentence like (20), there would be no difference in truth conditions between the two readings, since they would (standardly) pick out the same individual. But in (12) that same semantics could presumably lead to a difference in truth conditions - without invoking scope. However Klein points to a number of serious defects in such a proposal, not the least of which is that the demonstrative element, supposedly introduced by the descriptive phrase itself, turns out to be so weak that the proposal is in danger of triviality.

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Ambiguities in Intensional Contexts by Esa Saarinen (auth.), Frank Heny (eds.)


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