By Frank L. Smith III
Biological guns have threatened U.S. nationwide defense considering the fact that at the very least international warfare II. traditionally, although, the U.S. army has overlooked learn, improvement, acquisition, and doctrine for biodefense. Following September eleven and the anthrax letters of 2001, the USA all started spending billions of bucks in keeping with yr on scientific countermeasures and organic detection structures. yet such a lot of this investment now comes from the dept of overall healthiness and Human companies instead of the dep. of protection. Why has the U.S. army ignored biodefense and allowed civilian organisations to take the lead in protecting the rustic opposed to organic assaults? In American Biodefense, Frank L. Smith III addresses this perplexing and mostly untold tale approximately technological know-how, know-how, and nationwide security.
Smith argues that organizational frames and stereotypes have brought on either army overlook and the increase of civilian biodefense. within the armed companies, influential principles approximately kinetic conflict have undermined safeguard opposed to organic war. The effect of those rules on technology and know-how demanding situations the normal knowledge that nationwide defense coverage is pushed through threats or bureaucratic pursuits. Given the information at paintings contained in the U.S. army, Smith explains how the teachings discovered from biodefense might help remedy different vital difficulties that diversity from radiation guns to cyber attacks.
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Extra info for American Biodefense: How Dangerous Ideas about Biological Weapons Shape National Security
Second, errors in organizational stereotypes persist due to the lack of learning outside the dominant frame. This ignorance is often reified and reinforced by confirmation bias. ”74 This leads them to find what they expect to find because, in lingo from the philosophy of science, their observations are theory laden. 75 But stereotypes are error prone to begin with, and, since they are rarely recategorized, updated, or improved, relying on them can be dangerous. 76 While they misrepresent reality, stereotypes allow an organization to repeatedly acknowledge and simultaneously dismiss issues that it does not understand or, more accurately, that it misunderstands.
62 This distinction is lost in references to organizational essence and institutional personalities. As described by Halperin, for example, it is not clear whether the Air Force’s initial resistance to ballistic missiles was caused by aversion to the idea of having its officers sit in silos rather than fly or, alternatively, because it had to pay for these missiles out of its existing budget (making them an unfunded mandate). 63 Since these arguments refer to different factors, they can point in different directions and predict different results.
Chemical weapons and radiological weapons are likely candidates because their timing and mechanisms of damage differ from projectiles and explosives. Coupled with the kinetic frame, nonkinetic stereotypes should cause the DoD to learn little about these weapons and dismiss the problems and solutions involved with offense and defense alike. Military research, development, and acquisition for biodefense should suffer as a result, and errors in military doctrine should persist as well. Different ideas produce different outcomes, however, and so HHS should respond differently to civilian biodefense if the problems and solutions involved are more salient inside its frame of reference.
American Biodefense: How Dangerous Ideas about Biological Weapons Shape National Security by Frank L. Smith III